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Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical type or sort in mechanical systems or glyphs in digital systems representing characters letters and other symbols. Typesetting requires one or more fonts which are widely but erroneously confused with and substituted for typefaces. One significant effect of typesetting was that authorship of works could be spotted more easily, making it difficult for copiers who have not gained permission.
During much of the letterpress era , movable type was composed by hand for each page by workers called compositors. A tray with many dividers, called a case, contained cast metal sorts , each with a single letter or symbol, but backwards so they would print correctly. The compositor assembled these sorts into words, then lines, then pages of text, which were then bound tightly together by a frame, making up a form or page.
If done correctly, all letters were of the same height, and a flat surface of type was created. The form was placed in a press and inked, and then printed an impression made on paper.
During typesetting, individual sorts are picked from a type case with the right hand, and set into a composing stick held in the left hand from left to right, and as viewed by the setter upside down. As seen in the photo of the composing stick, a lower case ‘q’ looks like a ‘d’, a lower case ‘b’ looks like a ‘p’, a lower case ‘p’ looks like a ‘b’ and a lower case ‘d’ looks like a ‘q’.
This is reputed to be the origin of the expression “mind your p’s and q’s”. It might just as easily have been “mind your b’s and d’s”. A forgotten but important part of the process took place after the printing: the expensive sorts had to be sorted , so they would be ready for reuse.
Errors in sorting would produce later misprints. The diagram at right illustrates a cast metal sort: a face, b body or shank, c point size, 1 shoulder, 2 nick, 3 groove, 4 foot. Wooden printing sorts were used for centuries in combination with metal type.
Set width, like body size, is measured in points. In order to extend the working life of type, and to account for the finite sorts in a case of type, copies of forms were cast when anticipating subsequent printings of a text, freeing the costly type for other work. This was particularly prevalent in book and newspaper work where rotary presses required type forms to wrap an impression cylinder rather than set in the bed of a press.
Advances such as the typewriter and computer would push the state of the art even farther ahead. Still, hand composition and letterpress printing have not fallen completely out of use, and since the introduction of digital typesetting, it has seen a revival as an artisanal pursuit.
However, it is a small niche within the larger typesetting market. The time and effort required to manually compose the text led to several efforts in the 19th century to produce mechanical typesetting.
While some, such as the Paige compositor , met with limited success, by the end of the 19th century, several methods had been devised whereby an operator working a keyboard or other devices could produce the desired text.
Most of the successful systems involved the in-house casting of the type to be used, hence are termed “hot metal” typesetting. The Linotype machine , invented in , used a keyboard to assemble the casting matrices, and cast an entire line of type at a time hence its name. In the Monotype System , a keyboard was used to punch a paper tape , which was then fed to control a casting machine. The Ludlow Typograph involved hand-set matrices, but otherwise used hot metal. By the early 20th century, the various systems were nearly universal in large newspapers and publishing houses.
Phototypesetting or “cold type” systems first appeared in the early s and rapidly displaced continuous casting machines. These devices consisted of glass or film disks or strips one per font that spun in front of a light source to selectively expose characters onto light-sensitive paper. Originally they were driven by pre-punched paper tapes. Later they were connected to computer front ends. One of the earliest electronic photocomposition systems was introduced by Fairchild Semiconductor.
The typesetter typed a line of text on a Fairchild keyboard that had no display. To verify correct content of the line it was typed a second time.
If the two lines were identical a bell rang and the machine produced a punched paper tape corresponding to the text. With the completion of a block of lines the typesetter fed the corresponding paper tapes into a phototypesetting device that mechanically set type outlines printed on glass sheets into place for exposure onto a negative film.
Photosensitive paper was exposed to light through the negative film, resulting in a column of black type on white paper, or a galley. The galley was then cut up and used to create a mechanical drawing or paste up of a whole page.
A large film negative of the page is shot and used to make plates for offset printing. The next generation of phototypesetting machines to emerge were those that generated characters on a cathode ray tube. VideoComp ? Such machines could be “driven online” by a computer front-end system or took their data from magnetic tape.
Type fonts were stored digitally on conventional magnetic disk drives. Computers excel at automatically typesetting and correcting documents. The first commercially successful laser imagesetter, able to make use of a raster image processor, was the Monotype Lasercomp. ECRM, Compugraphic later purchased by Agfa and others rapidly followed suit with machines of their own. Early minicomputer -based typesetting software introduced in the s and early s, such as Datalogics Pager, Penta, Atex , Miles 33, Xyvision, troff from Bell Labs , and IBM’s Script product with CRT terminals, were better able to drive these electromechanical devices, and used text markup languages to describe type and other page formatting information.
The minicomputer systems output columns of text on film for paste-up and eventually produced entire pages and signatures of 4, 8, 16 or more pages using imposition software on devices such as the Israeli-made Scitex Dolev. The data stream used by these systems to drive page layout on printers and imagesetters, often proprietary or specific to a manufacturer or device, drove development of generalized printer control languages, such as Adobe Systems ‘ PostScript and Hewlett-Packard ‘s PCL.
Computerized typesetting was so rare that BYTE magazine comparing itself to “the proverbial shoemaker’s children who went barefoot” did not use any computers in production until its August issue used a Compugraphics system for typesetting and page layout. The magazine did not yet accept articles on floppy disks, but hoped to do so “as matters progress”. These companies performed keyboarding, editing and production of paper or film output, and formed a large component of the graphic arts industry.
In the United States, these companies were located in rural Pennsylvania, New England or the Midwest, where labor was cheap and paper was produced nearby, but still within a few hours’ travel time of the major publishing centers.
Improvements in software and hardware, and rapidly lowering costs, popularized desktop publishing and enabled very fine control of typeset results much less expensively than the minicomputer dedicated systems. At the same time, word processing systems, such as Wang , WordPerfect and Microsoft Word , revolutionized office documents. They did not, however, have the typographic ability or flexibility required for complicated book layout, graphics, mathematics, or advanced hyphenation and justification rules H and J.
By , this industry segment had shrunk because publishers were now capable of integrating typesetting and graphic design on their own in-house computers. Many found the cost of maintaining high standards of typographic design and technical skill made it more economical to outsource to freelancers and graphic design specialists.
The availability of cheap or free fonts made the conversion to do-it-yourself easier, but also opened up a gap between skilled designers and amateurs. The advent of PostScript, supplemented by the PDF file format, provided a universal method of proofing designs and layouts, readable on major computers and operating systems.
Later versions of SCRIPT included advanced features, such as automatic generation of a table of contents and index, multicolumn page layout, footnotes, boxes, automatic hyphenation and spelling verification. The program was first used at UW in The article also pointed out SCRIPT had over commands to assist in formatting documents, though 8 to 10 of these commands were sufficient to complete most formatting jobs.
Williams,  but was never released to the public and only used internally by IBM. While its use has fallen off, it is still included with a number of Unix and Unix-like systems, and has been used to typeset a number of high-profile technical and computer books.
Some versions, as well as a GNU work-alike called groff , are now open source. The TeX system, developed by Donald E.
Knuth at the end of the s, is another widespread and powerful automated typesetting system that has set high standards, especially for typesetting mathematics. TeX is considered fairly difficult to learn on its own, and deals more with appearance than structure.
The LaTeX macro package, written by Leslie Lamport at the beginning of the s, offered a simpler interface and an easier way to systematically encode the structure of a document. LaTeX markup is widely used in academic circles for published papers and books.
Although standard TeX does not provide an interface of any sort, there are programs that do. Several other text-formatting software packages exist—notably Lout , Patoline , Sile , Pollen , and Ant —but are not widely used. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Composition of text by means of arranging physical types or digital equivalents.
For other uses, see Formatted text. For a multi-volume work, see Bookset. For broader coverage of this topic, see Typography. Main article: Movable type. Main article: Hot metal typesetting. Main article: Phototypesetting. It easily handles footnotes. Page numbers can be in Arabic or Roman numerals, and can appear at the top or bottom of the page, in the centre, on the left or on the right, or on the left for even-numbered pages and on the right for odd-numbered pages.
Output can be obtained on the printer, or at the terminal…. Main article: Troff. Main article: TeX. Random House, Inc. Books: A Living History. Spiru Haret—ser. ISSN Archived from the original on Retrieved Ars Technica. Look up typesetting in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Binding Covers dust jackets Design Editing Illustration Illuminated manuscripts Printing edition history incunabula instant book limited edition Publishing advance copy hardcover paperback Size Typesetting Volume bibliography Collection publishing Book series.
Genres fictional miniature pop-up textbook Grimoire Formats audiobooks Ebooks Coffee table book. Outline Category Portal.
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Early versions of Foxit Reader were notable for startup performance and small file size. Until version 9. Foxit Software adds support for new platforms , and withdraws ones considered obsolete.
The Foxit installer was bundled with potentially unwanted programs like the Ask Toolbar  and OpenCandy which installed the browser-hijacking malware Conduit. In July , the Internet Storm Center reported that the mobile version for iPhone was transmitting unencrypted telemetry and other data to remote servers located in China despite users attempting to opt out of such data collection.
Versions of Foxit Reader up to 9. This was removed in later versions,  an action much criticised by users. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Freemium PDF tool. Foxit Reader on Windows 8. Windows 7 Windows 8 Windows 10 macOS Foxit Software. Retrieved Click “System Requirements” for list of operating systems currently supported, and minimum hardware requirements.
PC World magazine. Archived from the original on 24 July PDF creation is not available in Foxit Reader Retrieved 1 July Daves Computer Tips. Retrieved 16 July Clear Computer Help. After Linux. InfoSec Handlers Diary. SANS Institute. Retrieved 30 June List of PDF software. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from February Namespaces Article Talk.
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